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المساعي التوسعية الايطالية لإعادة ترسيم الحدود البحرية تهدد الأمن القومي التونسي

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أصبحت اشكالية ترسيم الحدود البحرية اليوم من بين أكثر الاشكاليات التي تطرح على طاولة المفاوضات وتدخل في حسابات الدول, سيما في ظل المتغيرات التي يشهدها العالم والتي تنبأ بمزيد التوتر, وما زاد الأمر تعقيدا تعافي العديد من الامبراطوريات وعودتها إلى المشهد الدولي كقوى عسكرية هادفة إلى استعادة أمجاد ما قبل الحرب العالمية الثانية, الأمر الذي  جعل من الاتفاقيات المبرمة سابقا في ما يتعلق بالحدود البحرية محل تشكيك واعادة نظر على اعتبار أنها جائرة وغير منصفة وفق داعمي هذه الفكرة. وإذ تطرح هذه الاشكالية, فهي تعرف أكثر تجلياتها في البحر الأبيض المتوسط الذي يتوفر على كميات هائلة من الغاز والنفط, حيث كشفت كل من تركيا ومصر واليونان عن نواياها اعادة ترسيم حدودها البحرية, وكشفت في المقابل ايطاليا عن نيتها المضي في نقض اتفاقية قانون البحار للأمم المتحدة لسنة 1982 تبعا للمشروع الذي تقدمت به ” حركة الخمسة نجوم”  القاضي بإعادة التفاوض مع جيرانها خاصة تونس على قاعدة أن الاتفاقيات المبرمة سابقا كانت ظالمة وغير منصفة لروما وخاصة اتفاق 1971 مع تونس. وقد أخذت المساعي الايطالية طابعا أكثر جدية خاصة بعد قرار الرئاسة الجزائرية في 2018 إنشاء منطقة اقتصادية خالصة متاخمة لبحرها الاقليمي, الأمر الذي أصبح يتهدد أمن المتوسط ويهدد الأمن البحري التونسي خاصة وأن ايطاليا تعتبر أن اتفاقية ترسيم الحدود مع تونس كانت في اطار و سياق تاريخي معين, لا يستجيب اليوم لمصالح روما وحجمها التاريخي ومشروعها لإنشاء منطقة اقتصادية بحرية خاصة.

المشروع الايطالي ونوايا توسيع حدودها البحرية مع تونس

تم مؤخرا داخل البرلمان الايطالي استساغة مشروع قانون لإعادة ترسيم الحدود البحرية مع تونس, ويعود ذلك إلى النوايا التوسعية الإيطالية الهادفة إلى مزيد توسيع مياهها الاقتصادية ويستجيب إلى شعار حركة خمسة نجوم اليمينية,         ” ايطاليا هي البحر”. ويعتبر مشروع القانون الذي أخذ في الآونة الأخيرة طابعا تشريعيا, أن الاتفاق الذي أمضته إيطاليا مع تونس في سنة 1971 والذي يقضي برسم حدود بحرية بين البلدين في الجرف القاري لا يستجيب اليوم إلى مطامح روما الاقتصادية والأمنية ولا إلى تاريخها وأمجادها وما تصبو اليه مستقبلا. وبالعودة على نص الاتفاق المبرم بين البلدين وقتها والجاري به العمل إلى اليوم وفق دستور الأمم المتحدة لقانون البحار والذي حدد أن عقدة الحدود مضيق صقيلية خطا متساوي البعد بين صقيلية وتونس باستثناء بانتلريا وجزر بلاجي    ( لامبيدوزا,لينوزا ولامبيون) تعامل على أنها معزل ايطالي في الجانب التونسي مع أقواس محددة في البحر الاقليمي.

 لم يعد نص الاتفاق هذا يرضي ايطاليا اليوم, ويعود أولا إلى ادعاء مفاده أن الجزر الايطالية المنعزلة في المياه البحرية التونسية خلقت شبه جيوب بحرية محاطة بمياه إقليمية تونسية يحول دون مصالح روما الاقتصادية, ويؤكد هذا التحليل ما تقدم به  ” فابيو كافيو” ضابط البحرية الايطالية المتقاعد والخبير في القانون البحري الدولي وأشد المدافعين عن شعار ايطاليا هي البحر, والذي أكد في الجلسة التي عقدتها حركة خمسة نجوم في 22 جويلية المنصرم, أن الدولة التونسية بموجب الاتفاق المبرم في 1971 قد استحوذت على المياه الاقليمية بالجرف القاري في ( بانتيليريا ) مقابل تنازلها عن أي حقوق في كل من (لامبيدوزا و لينوسا) وتمكين روما من  حدود بحرية مع جزيرة بيلاجي , وسمحت لها باستغلال مياهها الاقليمية للصيد لمدة 8 سنوات فقط, عوض أن تتقاسم مع ايطاليا المنطقة البحرية التي تعلو منطقة الصيد في اشارة الي المياه الاقليمية التونسية, وأن ايطاليا وافقت على نص الاتفاق لظروفها الخاصة وقتها.

 ويعود السبب الثاني إلى مشروع قانون إنشاء المنطقة الاقتصادية الخاصة بإيطاليا الذي تقدمت به حركة 5 نجوم والذي صادقت عليه  لجنة الشؤون الخارجية للبرلمان الايطالي والذي ينص على أن ” تمارس ايطاليا حقها ضمن المنطقة الاقتصادية الخالصة, حقها في التنقيب عن المواد الطبيعية واستغلالاها وحفظها, بيولوجية كانت أم غير بيولوجية ( في البحر وقاع البحر وباطن تربته)  وحقها في الأنشطة الأخرى المرتبطة بالتنقيب والاستغلال الاقتصادي للمنطقة مثل انتاج الطاقة المستدامة من المياه والتيارات. يحيل هذا المشروع على أن تكون ايطاليا من جديد بطلا في البحر الأبيض المتوسط وذلك من خلال استغلال الثروة السمكية وحماية مصالح الصيادين و أخذ الاجراءات اللازمة للتصدي لرحلات الصيد العشوائية للقوارب القادمة من خارج المتوسط, و بهذا المعنى ووفق هذه المساعي والاجراءات التي يطرحها مشروع المنطقة الاقتصادية الايطالية الخاصة, تحاول ايطاليا أن تتجاوز مياهها الاقليمية التي تخفي في طياتها غايات استراتيجية لما يجب أن تكون عليه ايطاليا كقوة وازنة في البحر الأبيض المتوسط الذي يزخر ويتوفر على كميات كبيرة من الغاز والنفط, سيما بعد أن أعلنت الجزائر عن إنشاء منطقة اقتصادية خالصة قبالة سواحلها البحرية بموجب القانون الرئاسي لسنة 2018 والذي سبقه اتفاق ترسيم الحدود البحرية مع جارتها تونس 2011 والذي اعتبرته الجزائر منطلق لكل تفاوض بين ايطاليا والجزائر

وتعتبر الخطوات الايطالية إلى جانب كونها ردة فعل على ما يعيشه البحر الأبيض المتوسط من نزاع على ترسيم الحدود البحرية سيما بين كل من تركيا وحكومة الوفاق الليبية والجزائر واسبانيا ( جزيرة مايوركا) وبين اليونان ومصر وتقدم الجزائر في رسم حدودها من الجهة الغربية للبحر الأبيض المتوسط وتحديدا على حدود جزيرة سردينيا الإيطالية, وتقدمها بشكوى ضد الجزائر على اعتبار أنها تجاوزت الحدود المسموح بها بما يناهز 74 ميل, فهي خطوة أيضا لها من الخطورة لإشعال فتيل التوتر في المنطقة خاصة وأنها تسعى لنقض اتفاقية 1971 مع تونس وإعادة التفاوض على جوهر الاتفاق.

تونس في مرمى المطامع الايطالية.

على الرغم من شح المعلومات عن مشروع القانون الذي تقدمت به حركة 5 نجوم داخل البرلمان الايطالي وعلى الرغم أيضا من عدم توضح حدود المنطقة الاقتصادية التي تنشد ايطاليا إنشاءها في البحر الأبيض المتوسط والتي تزامنت مع مساعي جيرانها ترسيم حدودها البحرية في ما بينها, فإن بعض المعلومات الشحيحة والتي نشرت على الصفحة الرسمية لحركة 5 نجوم, تشير مباشرة إلى نقض اتفاق 1971 مع تونس على قاعدة أنه اتفاق جائر وظالم لروما, جعل من الجزر الايطالية محاطة بمياه اقليمية تونسية, خلقت شبه جيب بحري حول جزيرة  پانتلريا  الإيطالية (13 ميلًا بحريًا لمسافة نصف قطرية)، وشبه جيب آخر خُلق يضم أقواس متداخلة تبلغ 13 ميلًا بحريًا حول جزيرتي لينوسا ولامبيدوسا الإيطاليتين، ويتقاطعان أيضًا مع منطقة بطول 12 ميلًا بحريًا حول لامبيوني يتقاطع الجيبان مع المياه الإيطالية عند خط متساوي الأبعاد، لكنها عدا ذلك محاطة بالمياه التونسية, الأمر الذي يجعل اليوم من الاتفاق مع تونس موضوع حارق سيم وأن المشروع الايطالي يهدف إلى توسيع المساحة البحرية التي تصبو ايطاليا التوسع فيها والتي تدخل في نطاق سيطرة الدولة التونسية, وقد تم مؤخرا تداول خرائط تفيد بأن المقترحات الجديدة لإيطاليا تمس مباشرة من سيادة الدولة التونسية على حدودها البحرية, وفي ما يلي شرح للحدود المقترحة مؤخرا من جهة ايطاليا, ولكن سوف نحاول أولا وفق رسم بياني وخريطة الحدود البحرية لسنة 1971 أن نوضح ما يثير حفيظة الايطاليين والمساعي لإعادة ترسيم الحدود مع الدولة التونسية.

تبين الخريطة الأولى الحدود البحرية التي تم الاتفاق عليها في سنة 1971, فالخط البنفسجي يمثل الحدود البحرية بين تونس وايطاليا, حيث تدخل كل من جزيرة (لامبيدوسا وبانتلريا ولامبيوني) على الرغم من أنها جزر ايطالية داخل المياه الاقليمية التي تسيطر عليها الدولة التونسية, وتشير الخريطة الثانية على اليمين  وجود شبه الجيوب البحرية المحاطة بالمياه الاقليمية التونسية, والتي تعتبرها ايطاليا ظلما واجحافا في حقها وتحول دون مصالحها الاقتصادية في البحر الأبيض المتوسط… لذلك سوف نحاول أن نبين من خلال الخريطة الثالثة التي يتم تداولها اليوم والتي تمثل المقترحات الحدودية البحرية الجديدة مع تونس :

 تشير الخريطة الأولى إلى الحدود الجديدة التي تقترحها ايطاليا, فالخط الوردي المتواصل والذي يحمل دوائر تحيط بالجزر الإيطالية المحاطة بالمياه الاقليمية التونسية لم يعد هو الخط الحدودي وفق المشروع الحدودي البحري الجديد الذي تقدمت به حركة خمسة نجوم, حيث تم تعويضه بخط وردي متقطع يسمح لإيطاليا بالتحرك بحريا في حدود 200 ميل, مما يجعلها قريبة جدا من السواحل التونسية ويهدد مباشرة أمنها القومي.

وتشير الخريطة الثانية وهي الأخطر على الدولة التونسية ذلك لأنها تمثل تهديد مباشر للسواحل التونسية, فالسهم باللون الأحمر يرمز إلى المنطقة الجنوب شرقية المحاذية لجزيرة بيلاجي والتي تسعى ايطاليا إلى احكام السيطرة عليها, الأمر الذي يهدد مباشرة وبالنتيجة مجالات الصيد في المياه الاقليمية التونسية وينذر تباعا إذا ما أحكمت ايطاليا السيطرة على المنطقة بتطبيق قوانينها على المنطقة.

خلاصة القول, يعيش البحر الأبيض المتوسط توترات غير مسبوقة ترافقت مع الاكتشافات الهائلة للنفط والغاز, الأمر الذي جعل من إعادة ترسيم الحدود بين الدول غاية في الأهمية وأولوية تفترضها مصالح الدول في ظل ازمات عالمية متكررة جعلت من هاتين المادتين الحيويتين مطالب ملحة وهاجس يحرك العلاقات الدولية. وإذ أن الحياد والتفاوض السلمي في ما يتعلق بترسيم الحدود البحرية أمرا غاية في الأهمية لتجنب التوترات والتصعيد العسكري, فإن جانب الحذر واليقظة يظل أمرا ضروريا سيم وأن ما يهدد أمن الدول مباشرة لا يكون محل تفاوض ولا ديبلوماسية مرنة.     

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