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السوريون ضحية صراع مزمن وأزمة غذاء متفاقمة

المصدر: ترجمة: مكي معمري عن «فورين بوليسي»

فاقم نقص الغذاء، الذي يغذيه الوباء الحالي، الأزمة الإنسانية في سورية، ويقول مراقبون إن الأسوأ لم يأتِ بعد، في البلدان التي مزقتها الصراعات.

وقال مسؤولون في منظمة الأمم المتحدة، وعمال إغاثة مقيمون في سورية، إن هذا الوضع يمكن أن يعمق الأزمة الإنسانية، في البلاد، بعد نحو عقد من الصراع.

وتقدم الأزمات المتفاقمة نموذجاً قاتماً للآثار الوبائية الطويلة المدى في الوضع الإنساني، في مناطق ممزقة بالصراعات، مثل جنوب السودان واليمن والساحل الإفريقي، حيث قد تواجه الحكومات ومنظمات المساعدة المقايضة بين إجراءات الإغلاق التي تؤدي إلى تفاقم نقص الغذاء، أو معالجة نقص الغذاء مع خطر المزيد من العدوى.

وما زاد الحال سوءاً هو التباطؤ الاقتصادي العالمي، الناجم عن فيروس كورونا المستجد، والذي أدى بالفعل إلى تفاقم نقص الغذاء في جميع أنحاء العالم. وتتوقع هيئات المساعدة الدولية أن يكون عام 2020 إحدى أسوأ السنوات، في ما يخص انعدام الأمن الغذائي العالمي، وذلك بسبب مزيج من تغير المناخ والصراعات.

وبعد تفشي الوباء، تضاعف عدد الأشخاص الذين يُتوقع أنهم سيواجهون الجوع الحاد، في جميع أنحاء العالم، من 135 مليوناً إلى 265 مليوناً، وفقاً لبرنامج الأغذية العالمي.

وتتحمل سورية العبء الأكبر من هذه الأزمات المتداخلة. ووفقاً للبرنامج، فقد تم تصنيف أكثر من نصف إجمالي سكان البلاد، البالغ عددهم نحو 17 مليون نسمة، على أنهم يعانون انعدام الأمن الغذائي، بزيادة قدرها 1.4 مليون، منذ بداية العام. وقال مدير الشؤون الإنسانية بالأمم المتحدة، مارك لوكوك، إن «2.2 مليون آخرين قد يواجهون نقصاً محتملاً في الغذاء،» متابعاً: «عدد المحتاجين في تزايد».

وتقول مديرة برنامج الأمن الغذائي العالمي في مركز الدراسات الاستراتيجية والدولية، كايتلين ولش: «كانت هناك عاصفة من آثار تغير المناخ والصراعات، التي جعلت سورية واحدة من أكثر الدول التي تعاني انعدام الأمن الغذائي في العالم». متابعةً: «هذا يجعل الموقف السيئ أسوأ».

إن منطقة شمال غرب سورية، التي يسيطر عليها المتمردون، هي بأمس الحاجة للمساعدة الإنسانية، إذ أدت الهجمات التي شنتها القوات الحكومية، المدعومة من روسيا، إلى تشريد أكثر من نصف مليون شخص، هذا العام.

لكن مستشار السياسة والاتصالات بمنظمة «أوكسفام»، في دمشق، مات هيمسلي، يقول إن الوضع يزداد سوءاً في المناطق التي تسيطر عليها الحكومة، «إذ يتحدث الناس الآن بشكل متزايد عن المخاطر، التي يواجهونها من الجوع. وهذا يقود الناس إلى حافة الهاوية».

ويوضح هيمسلي: «هناك تقارير تفيد بأن الناس يتخذون تدابير يائسة تماماً، وهم يتحدثون إلينا، ويخبروننا بأنهم يجمعون ويطبخون الأعشاب الضارة ثم يأكلونها»، متابعاً: «هذا ما يفعله الناس إذا كانوا يائسين».

ما يمكن أن يساعد الفئات الأكثر ضعفاً في سورية، على المدى القصير، هو المزيد من شحنات الأغذية الدولية، والمزيد من الزيارات إلى مراكز أو أسواق توزيع الأغذية، والمزيد من التفاعل مع عمال الإغاثة.

ويتطلب ذلك السفر والتفاعل الشخصي، مع أن خبراء الصحة حذروا من ذلك لمنع انتشار الفيروس التاجي.

وهذا يترك عمال الإغاثة الإنسانية يناضلون من أجل مقايضة قاتمة، إما محاربة الجوع أو محاربة «كورونا».

بنية تحتية مدمرة

في الوقت الحالي، لايزال عدد حالات الوفاة الناجمة عن «كوفيد-19»، المبلغ عنها، في سورية، منخفضاً، وفقاً للبيانات الرسمية. وسجلت منظمة الصحة العالمية 372 إصابة مؤكدة، و14 حالة وفاة في البلاد، حتى 7 يوليو. لكن البنية التحتية الصحية المدمرة، والظروف المعيشية التي تجعل التباعد الاجتماعي صعباً، وانخفاض معدل الاختبارات، تعني أن العدد من المحتمل أن يكون أعلى بكثير.

ومن المحتمل ألا تتمكن البنية التحتية للرعاية الصحية الضعيفة من التعامل مع تفشي المرض على نطاق واسع. وتقدر منظمة الصحة أن أكثر من نصف المستشفيات والمراكز الصحية، في سورية، لا تعمل بسبب الحرب.

ولا يوجد سوى 1400 سرير بالمستشفيات، و250 سريراً للعناية المركزة، وفقاً لبيانات اتحاد منظمات الرعاية الطبية والإغاثة، وهي مجموعة غير ربحية تتابع الأزمة في سورية.

وجمع مؤتمر دولي للمانحين 5.5 مليارات دولار، الشهر الماضي، قدمتها الولايات المتحدة والاتحاد الأوروبي وألمانيا وبلدان أخرى، للمساعدات الإنسانية في سورية، في هذا العام. و2.2 مليار دولار للاستجابة للأزمات في عام 2021. وتعهدت واشنطن بتقديم 696 مليون دولار من المساعدات الإنسانية الجديدة، ووفقاً للناطق باسم الوكالة الأميركية للتنمية الدولية، بوجا جونونوالا، فإنه تم تخصيص أكثر من 31 مليون دولار للسوريين على وجه التحديد، لمكافحة الفيروس التاجي. لكن روسيا تمنع إعادة فتح معبر حدودي مهم للمساعدة الإنسانية.

وتقدم الطفرة الجديدة في الأموال شريان حياة للسوريين المحاصرين بين الصراع والوباء ونقص الغذاء. لكن لوكوك قال إنه حتى مع زيادة جمع الأموال لسورية، قد لا يكون ذلك كافياً، بالنظر إلى أزمة «كورونا»، حتى لو كان بالإمكان تسليم المساعدة بالفعل.

وقال «على الرغم من وجود عملية عبر الحدود لنقل المواد الغذائية والأدوية والإمدادات الأخرى، فإن حجم الحاجة يحول دون تلبية جميع احتياجات السوريين الأساسية، من خلال هذا البرنامج، في الوقت الحالي».

وتضررت دول كثيرة، بشدة، من الفيروس وأنفقت مئات المليارات من الدولارات، للتعامل مع الأزمة الصحية، معظمها على الرعاية الصحية والتحفيز الاقتصادي.

ولا تستطيع سورية، مثل غيرها من البلدان الفقيرة والممزقة بالصراعات، تحمل أي انتكاسات اقتصادية. وهذا يعني أنه من المحتمل أن يكون هناك الكثير في الانتظار.

وقال لوكوك: «هناك احتمال ينذر بالخطر بشأن وضع سيئ حقاً، بالعديد من البلدان في غضون ستة أشهر». متابعاً: «هناك خطر حدوث مجاعات متعددة، وارتفاع كبير في الوفيات، مع تدهور الخدمات الصحية».

صعوبات مستمرة

مشكلات سورية كثيرة، منها صعوبات مستمرة في إنتاج الغذاء وتوزيعه، بعد أن كانت الزراعة إحدى ركائز الاقتصاد السوري، قبل الحرب. وقد أدى الصراع إلى حدوث خلل كبير في العرض والتوريد. وحتى عندما يتوافر الطعام على الرفوف، فإنه لا يوجد عند السوريين ما يكفي للإنفاق عليه.

كما تعرضت سورية لانتكاسات، بسبب سنوات من الجفاف الناجم عن تغير المناخ، بما في ذلك الجفاف الشديد، الذي ربما ساعد في بدء الانتفاضة، قبل 10 سنوات. ثم هناك الكارثة الاقتصادية في لبنان المجاور، الذي يعتبر القناة الرئيسة للأعمال المصرفية للاقتصاد السوري الذي مزقته الحرب.

تعاني سورية من صعوبات مستمرة في إنتاج الغذاء وتوزيعه، بعد أن كانت الزراعة إحدى ركائز الاقتصاد السوري، قبل الحرب.

ما يمكن أن يساعد الفئات الأكثر ضعفاً في سورية، على المدى القصير، هو المزيد من شحنات الأغذية الدولية، والمزيد من التفاعل مع عمال الإغاثة.

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